Article II – Our Executive Branch

ARTICLE. II.

Our EXECUTIVE BRANCH

 

CHAPTER. I.

Our FEDERAL EXECUTIVE

 

PART. I. Our PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT

 

Section. 1. Requires that our President and Vice President be no less than thirty-five years of age:

 

All of these requirements are also required of the President, Vice President, Governors, Lieutenant Governors, and Supreme Court Justices.

To ensure enough maturity and enough experience, presidential candidates must be at least thirty-five years old.

 

be born to parents who are both US Citizens; raised for sixteen of their first eighteen years in Our United States:

The Valentine Constitution reserves elected office for Citizens born and raised in America in order to protect against potential disloyalty. Home is where the heart is. It never goes away. Where you were born and raised is where your loyalties lie. There is no reason to take a chance when there are so many qualified American-born Citizens to fill our elected offices and justiceships. We have plenty enough Citizens with America in their blood to need to make exceptions for those who do not. Our candidates should be steeped in our government, culture, values and traditions, so they have knowledge commensurate with the position. We have plenty enough Citizens with America in their blood to need to make exceptions for those who do not. Two years time is allowed for those born to personnel in US missions like the Armed Forces to return home.

 

be resident in Our United States for the twenty years prior to taking office:

If a candidate is elected to represent the nation, then the candidate should know the place and its people better than nearly anyone since the candidate will be passing laws which may greatly affect the place and the people. It takes 20 years to fully know a place and its people, Candidates will need to demonstrate a serious desire to live and work here in America.

 

serves for no more than two terms of four years each:

Eight years is plenty of time for a President and a Vice President to accomplish the goals they are likely to accomplish and to avoid a stale agenda.

 

PART. II. The POWERS and RESPONSIBILITIES of  Our PRESIDENT

 

Grants the following powers to the President:

 

Section. 1. To prepare the nation’s budget with the consent of a majority of both houses of Congress, and report to Congress the name and salary of every employee of the White House Office, and issue executive orders:

 

The Valentine Constitution reaffirms these provisions of The Madison Constitution giving the President the authority and obligation to submit the budget for review by the Legislature, and to inform the Legislature who is receiving money from the office of the President and how much, and to issue executive orders to both execute our laws and uphold the Constitution by promulgation, and to communicate executive policy and awaited decisions by memorandum. It preserves the executive order which has been invoked in many forms by nearly all of Our Presidents beginning with Washington.

 

Section. 2. To manage the affairs of the Nation and the Federal Executive agencies, and contracts with the State governments; to receive ambassadors and public ministers and make treaties with a two-third’s approval of Our Senators; and to recognize new nations and new governments and negotiate “executive agreements” with foreign powers:

 

The Valentine Constitution preserves these standard powers given to the President by The Madison Constitution. The President may unilaterally run the Federal government, make contracts with the States, recognize new nations, and negotiate executive agreements with foreign powers. The latter gives us a buffer in negotiations much like a husband agreeing to a purchase but having to clear it with his wife. Whereas to make a treaty the President will require a 2/3 concurrence of Our Senators.

 

and to settle all treaties with “Indian” “tribes” so that they become full Citizens and be treated the same as any other citizens:

The Valentine Constitution allows our nation to finalize “Indian affairs.” “One nation indivisible with liberty and justice for all.” Native Americans will be united with the other Citizens of The United States with justice and fairness and common sense applied in ending their obscure status. There can be no privileged or unprivileged Citizens in a democracy, nor any nations within our nation, nor any peoples operating under a separate set of rules. Our Declaration of Independence “assumes among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle us.” Equality was invoked at the founding of our nation and we have waged too many battles and lost too many lives in its support to allow its obfuscation. These affairs will be finally negotiated and result in Native Americans becoming full Citizens like all others and subject to our laws like all others.

Likewise a final decision must be made concerning some of America’s “protectorates” like Puerto Rico and Guam. It’s high time that people living on separate lands not States of our union be allowed to exercise their God-given right to self-determination, a right invoked by us to found our democracy. Nations around the world must be made whole not on the artificial divisions created by conquering outsiders but on the boundaries natural to the common sense realities of belonging.

 

Section. 3. To command Our Armed Forces; to command the State Guards in support of our Armed Forces or in crisis or whenever their deployment across State lines cannot be agreed upon by the affected Governors; to commission officers:

The Valentine Constitution allows the President as Commander in Chief to control the resources necessary to defend us and secure the general welfare including the command of the State Guards which together will form our National Guard and be at the command of Governors as a check and balance to Federal authority. When the Governors of two or more states cannot agree, due to some political or logistic or budgetary issue, on the manner of deployment of their State Guards across state lines for example in an emergency relief effort, then the President has the right to take command and solve the problem. Likewise when any State Guards are needed to support Our Armed Forces, the President will be able to take command of them so that we do not have too many generals spoiling the strategy.

 

and to deploy our Armed Forces except when a majority of Our Representatives vote to deny funding or when a majority of the Senators vote to halt the deployment:

The Valentine Constitution reaffirms the check and balance by Our Representatives to deny funding for the deployment of Our Armed Forces, and by Our Senators to halt the deployment in case the deployment is deemed unreasonable, unpopular, overzealous or hasty.

 

Section. 4. To appoint the top officials of all Federal agencies, public ministers and consuls in the manner provided herein:

Please see Article I, Part V. Section 3.

The Madison Constitution puts no limits on the time it takes for the Legislators to approve Executive appointments. This has led to long term vacancies and delayed work due to vacated offices and by Legislatures often sidelined by the political implications of certain important vacancies. This is not what Madison intended. The problem is therefore rectified by The Valentine Constitution which puts time limits on the approval of each appointee, and, whenever three appointees for the same job are rejected by the Legislators, calls for Our Citizens to elect the appointee from the rejected nominees.

 

without the need for approval, to appoint inferior officers, and to fill vacancies which may occur during the recess of Our Senators:

The Valentine Constitution reaffirms The Madison Constitution’s provisions allowing the President to appoint inferior offices without the approval of Congress, and to fill vacancies during recess.

 

Section. 5. To get a job report from the principal officers of the Federal or State agencies:

The Madison Constitution ensures that principle officers of our government are obligated to present to Our President in writing the particulars of the performance of their duties. The Valentine Constitution adds State agencies to the requirement thereby providing a check and balance by the Federal Executive on the State Executive, and in a later provision provides the State Governors with the reciprocal authority to complete the check and balance.

 

Section. 6. To introduce and to veto legislation; and to provide Congress with recommendations and the State of the Union address:

The Madison Constitution’s legislation introduction and veto powers live on in The Valentine Constitution, as do the State of the Union tradition and the recommendations authority. The veto is a tool for checking and balancing the power of the Legislature as are the legislation introduction and recommendations powers which allow the President to continue to represent the nation as a whole and Our Citizens in particular by presenting legislation and recommendations and petitions which address grievances on their behalf in Congress.

 

Section. 7. To call special legislative sessions and convene Congress on significant matters or when Congress fails to consider Presidential proposals before adjourning; or to adjourn Our Senators and Our Representatives in case of “reckless disagreement”:

The Valentine Constitution reaffirms The Madison Constitution’s provisions allowing the President to convene a Congress not in session should a crisis arise or should there be unfinished business on the calendar, or to adjourn a hotly conflicted Legislature.

 

Section. 8. To commute sentences and grant reprieves and pardons:

The Madison Constitution’s provision allowing the President to pardon criminals is affirmed by The Valentine Constitution as a tool for accomplishing various useful tasks like invoking the principles of fairness and justice in cases where the letter of the law has conflicted with its spirit, or when the prosecuting authorities got a case wrong, or to send messages to overzealous courts or law enforcement agencies, or simply to save time and money by doing the expedient thing like releasing a severely disabled prisoner, or a prisoner so old as to no longer be a threat, or one requiring isolation for their own protection.

 

Section. 9. To take care that all of the Laws be faithfully executed and obeyed:

The Madison Constitution’s provision may well be both a power and a limitation since it both allows and requires the execution of our laws. Left out by Madison but included by Valentine are the words “all of,” to ensure if not the equal execution of all of them, then at least not the neglect or avoidance or suspension of any. The Presidential discretion afforded in executing the laws is now balanced by the concurrent mandate that they are “obeyed” by all, the President included. Furthermore, execution could easily mean simply passing legislation to invoke them without following up on the success of the legislation. What good is setting up a department if it doesn’t do its job?

 

PART. III. The POWERS and RESPONSIBILITIES of

Our VICE PRESIDENT

 

Grants the following powers to the Vice President:

 

Section. 1. To preside over the Senators, ensure that the proceedings of the Federal and State Legislatures are followed, and to vote in either House of Congress in the event that the number of members in favor equals the number opposed on any matter:

The Madison Constitution’s provisions are reaffirmed allowing the Vice President to preside over The Senate and to break the odd tie amongst Our Senators. The Valentine Constitution augments those powers by allowing the Vice President to ensure that the proceedings of Our Representatives are also in order, and to break a tie amongst Our Representatives as well as amongst our Senators, as a matter of a logical extension of his procedural oversight and as matter of expediency. Further power is extended as a check and balance on the States by allowing the Vice President to ensure that the procedures of Our State Legislatures are also in order. Giving the Vice President procedural oversight in the State Legislatures is a relatively powerless position but it does keep the State Legislatures honest and ensures that all State Legislatures are practicing the standards set forth herein, and that they be practiced uniformly so that our Citizens can better follow the legislature of whatever State they live in.

 

CHAPTER. II.

Our STATE EXECUTIVE

 

PART. I. Our GOVERNOR

and LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR

 

Section. 1. Every Governor and Lieutenant Governor shall be no less than thirty-five years of age; a full Citizen; be raised for sixteen of their first eighteen years in Our United States; be resident in the United States for the twenty years prior to taking office; and shall serve for no more than two terms of four years each:

 

To ensure enough maturity and enough experience, gubernatorial candidates must be at least thirty-five years old. The Valentine Constitution reserves elected office for Citizens born and raised in America in order to protect against potential disloyalty. Where you were born and raised is where your loyalties lie. There is no reason to take a chance when there are so many qualified American-born Citizens to fill our elected offices and justiceships. Furthermore, our candidates should be steeped in our government, culture, values and traditions. We have plenty enough Citizens with America in their blood to need to make exceptions for those who do not. If a candidate is elected to represent a constituency, then the candidate should know the place and its people better than nearly anyone since the candidate will be passing laws which may greatly affect the place and the people. It takes ten years to fully know a place and its people, but if you’re running for one of the big offices, you’re going to need to demonstrate a serious desire to live and work where you’re running. Eight years is plenty of time for a Governor and Lieutenant Governor to accomplish the goals they are likely to accomplish and to avoid a stale agenda.

 

PART. II. The POWERS and RESPONSIBILITIES of

Our GOVERNORS

 

Grants the following powers to Our Governors:

 

Section. 1. To prepare the State’s budget with the consent of a majority of both houses of the State Legislature; to submit an annual report to the State Legislature listing the name and salary of every employee of the Governor’s Office; and to issue executive orders:

The Valentine Constitution reaffirms these provisions of The Madison Constitution giving the Governor the authority and obligation to submit the budget for review by the State Legislature, and to inform the State Legislature who is receiving money from the office of the Governor and how much, and to issue executive orders to both execute our laws and uphold the Constitution by promulgation, and to communicate executive policy and awaited decisions by memorandum.

 

Section. 2. To manage the affairs of the State, and the State agencies, and contracts with other State governments and with the Federal government; and to receive public ministers:

The Valentine Constitution reaffirms the authority granted to the Governors of most states to receive public ministers and to negotiate, without legislative approval, executive agreements with the Federal government and with other States.

 

Section. 3. To command the State Guard and to commission its officers and to deploy the State Guard except when a majority of that State’s Councilors vote to deny additional funding or when a majority of that State’s Legislators vote to halt the deployment:

The Valentine Constitution reaffirms the authority granted to the Governors of most states to command the State Guard which will include coordinating with the Governors of adjacent States and if necessary the Armed Forces. The State Guard under The Valentine Constitution has added duties and acts as a check and balance to Federal power. The Governor’s command authority and responsibility extends to Emergency Relief, urban and forest fire and paramedics, traffic and stranded motorist assistance, as well as crowd control and protection of demonstrators and property, as all will fall to the State Guard.

The Valentine Constitution reaffirms the check and balance by the State’s Councilors to deny funding, or the State’s Legislators to halt the deployment of the State Guard in case a Governor is overly zealous or the deployment unpopular or unreasonable or hasty.

 

Section. 4. To appoint the top officials of all State agencies, public ministers and consuls with the approval within thirty days of a majority of that State’s Legislators but after their third rejection then within thirty days by a preference vote of Our Citizens:

Please see Article I, Part V. Section 3.

The Valentine Constitution reaffirms the authority granted to the Governors of most states to appoint the officers or various departments and agencies with the approval of the State Legislature, but shortens the time for confirmation to ensure that the government is staffed to do its important work.

 

without the need for approval, to appoint inferior officers and vacancies which may occur during the recess of Our Legislators:

The Valentine Constitution reaffirms provisions of most States allowing the Governor to appoint inferior offices without the approval of Congress, and to fill vacancies during recess.

 

Section. 5. To obtain a job report from the principal officer of each of the State or Federal agencies:

The Valentine Constitution ensures that principal officers of our State governments are obligated to present to Our State Governors in writing the particulars of the performance of their duties. The Valentine Constitution adds Federal agencies to the requirement thereby providing a check and balance by the State Executives on the Federal Executive, and in an earlier provision provides Our President with the same reciprocal authority to complete the check and balance.

 

Section. 6. To introduce and to veto legislation; and to provide Our Legislators with recommendations and a State of the State address:

As now provided by most States the Governor’s legislation introduction and veto powers, the State of the Union tradition and the recommendations authority live on in The Valentine Constitution. The veto is a tool for checking and balancing the power of the Legislature as are the legislation introduction and recommendations powers which allow the Governor to continue to represent the State as a whole and Our Citizens in particular by presenting legislation and recommendations and petitions which address grievances on their behalf in the State Legislature.

 

Section. 7. To call special legislative sessions and convene either or both Our Legislators and Our Councilors when they failed to consider Gubernatorial proposals before adjourning; or to adjourn Our Legislators and Our Councilors in case of reckless disagreement:

The Valentine Constitution reaffirms the provisions by most States allowing the Governor to convene a Legislature not in session should a crisis arise or should there be unfinished business on the calendar, or to adjourn a hotly conflicted Legislature.

 

Section. 8. To commute sentences and grant reprieves and pardons:

The provision of most States allowing the Governor to pardon criminals is affirmed by The Valentine Constitution as a tool for accomplishing various useful tasks like invoking the principles of fairness and justice in cases where the letter of the law has conflicted with its spirit, or when the prosecuting authorities got a case wrong, or to send messages to overzealous courts or law enforcement agencies, or simply to save time and money by doing the expedient thing like releasing a severely disabled prisoner, or a prisoner so old as to no longer be a threat, or one requiring isolation for their own protection.

 

Section. 9. To take care that all of the Laws be faithfully executed and obeyed:

The provision may well be both a power and a limitation since it both allows and requires the execution of our laws. The Gubernatorial discretion afforded under this provision is balanced by the concurrent mandate to both execute the laws, and to obey them. The Valentine Constitution includes the words “all of,” to ensure if not the equal execution of all of them, then at least not the neglect or avoidance or suspension or disobedience of any.

 

PART. III. The POWERS and RESPONSIBILITIES of

Our LIEUTENANT GOVERNORS

 

Grants the following powers to Our Lieutenant Governors:

Section. 1. To preside over their Legislators and ensure that the proceedings of both houses of both the Federal and State Legislatures are followed, and to vote in either House of their State’s Legislature in the event of a tie:

 

The provision by most States is affirmed allowing the Lieutenant Governor to preside over the upper house of the State Legislature and to break the odd tie. The Valentine Constitution augments those powers by allowing the Lieutenant Governor to ensure that the proceedings of Our Councilors are also in order, and to break a tie amongst Our Councilors and Legislators, as a matter of a logical extension of his procedural oversight and as matter of expediency. Further power is extended as a check and balance on the Federal government by allowing the Lieutenant Governor to ensure that the procedures of Our Federal Legislatures are also in order. Giving the Lieutenant Governor procedural oversight in the Federal Legislatures while relatively powerless, keeps the Federal Legislatures honest and ensures they are practicing the standards set forth herein so our Citizens can better monitor Our Legislatures.


The Valentine Constitution


PREAMBLE

ARTICLE. I.
The RULES of REPRESENTATION

PART. I.CAMPAIGN FINANCING, LOBBYING and CORRUPTION
PART. II. VOTING
PART. III. ELECTIONS
PART. IV. TERMS of OFFICE
PART. V. VACANCIES and ORDER of SUCCESSION
PART. VI. QUALIFICATION, OATH and IMMUNITY

ARTICLE. II.
Our EXECUTIVE BRANCH

CHAPTER. I.
Our FEDERAL EXECUTIVE

PART. I. Our PRESIDENT and VICE PRESIDENT
PART. II. The POWERS and RESPONSIBILITIES of Our PRESIDENT
PART. III. The POWERS and RESPONSIBILITIES of Our VICE PRESIDENT

CHAPTER. II.
Our STATE EXECUTIVE

PART. I. Our GOVERNOR and LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR
PART. II. The POWERS and RESPONSIBILITIES of Our GOVERNORS
PART. III. The POWERS and RESPONSIBILITIES of Our LIEUTENANT GOVERNORS

ARTICLE. III.
Our LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

CHAPTER. I.
Our FEDERAL LEGISLATURES

PART. I. Our BICAMERAL FEDERAL LEGISLATURE
PART. II. Our SENATORS
PART. III. Our REPRESENTATIVES
PART. IV. The POWERS and RESPONSIBILITIES of Our FEDERAL LEGISLATURE

CHAPTER. II.
Our STATE LEGISTATURES

PART. I. Our BICAMERAL STATE LEGISLATURES
PART. II. Our LEGISLATORS
PART. III. Our COUNCILORS
PART. IV. The POWERS and RESPONSIBILITIES of Our STATE LEGISLATURES

CHAPTER. III.
The PROCEEDINGS of Our LEGISLATURES

PART. I. ASSEMBLY
PART. II. BILLS
PART. III. The VETO

ARTICLE. IV.
The DIVISION of POWERS

PART. I. GOVERNANCE
PART. II. FEDERAL RESPONSIBILITIES
PART. III. STATE RESPONSIBLILITIES
PART. IV. Our DEPARTMENTS

ARTICLE. V.
Our JUDICIAL Branch

PART. I. The JUDICIAL BUDGET and COMPENSATION
PART. II. Our JUSTICES
PART. III. STANDING and JURISDICTION
PART. IV. Our COURTS
PART. V. The PROCEEDINGS of Our JUDICIARY

ARTICLE. VI.
Our US ECONOMY

PART. I. A SINGLE BANK
PART. II. A SINGLE TAX
PART. III. Our BUDGET
PART. IV. JOBS, COMPENSATION, MONOPOLIES and DERIVATIVES
PART. V.A FAIR INTERNET MARKETPLACE
PART. VI.STANDARDS

ARTICLE. VII.
Our RIGHTS and RESPONSIBILITIES

PART. I. The RIGHTS and RESPONSIBILITIES of Our CITIZENS
PART. II. Our PUBLIC SCHOOLS shall be FULFILLING
PART. III. Our WATER and FOOD SUPPLY shall be PROTECTED

ARTICLE. VIII.
Our FOREIGN AFFAIRS

PART. I. Our FOREIGN POLICY
PART. II. Our ARMED FORCES

ARTICLE. IX.
OBLIGATIONS


PLEDGE

With a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence,

we mutually pledge our Lives, our Fortunes,

and our sacred Honor to each other

and to the passage of this Constitution

for Our United States of America.

SIGNATURES

james valentine